Twitter, free speech, injunctions and the Streisand effect
24 May 2011

US view: The Electronic Frontier Foundation’s Jillian York and Cindy Cohn examine the Ryan Giggs affair

This is a cross-post with the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Despite an anonymised injunction designed to keep his name and the story of his extra-marital affair out of the tabloids, British footballer Ryan Giggs has found that where there’s the internet, there’s a way…for the story to get out, that is.

Partially in response to the draconian nature of the injunction the footballer obtained, tens of thousands of Twitter users published his name, briefly turning it — along with the name of his alleged mistress — into a Twitter trending topic, with purportedly as many as 75,000 individuals tweeting the name.  We call this public backlash to overbroad censorship attempts the Streisand effect.

The controversial super injunction and anonymised injunction privacy procedures are born of judge’s interpretations of 1998 Human Rights Act which aimed, nobly, at protecting individuals’ privacy, while also protecting their right to freedom of expression. However, the balance here is plainly off. Article 19 argues that super injunctions are a form of prior censorship that is not permitted under international human rights law — including permitted limits to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

It’s easy to see why. In this case, as in reportedly many others, injunctions have become a tool of powerful public figures to try to stop embarrassing facts from being discussed, and in this instance the injunction process is ironically being used to require Twitter to pierce the anonymity of its customers based on the content of their speech. Particularly in this situation — where very public figures who actively seek public attention much of the time are trying to ensure that the public only learns the heroic, and not the embarrassing, facts about them — these broad super injunctions raise deep concerns.

While the situation raises raises many questions, three issues jump out at us:

Blaming the Platform —- the UK needs Intermediary Protection

In the United States, intermediaries like Twitter are protected by Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act of 1996. CDA 230 provides online intermediaries that host speech with protection against a range of laws that might otherwise hold them legally responsible for what their users say and do. In essence, CDA places the responsibility for speech on the individual speaker rather than on the platform.

As Eric Goldman noted in a position paper for an OECD experts workshop on internet intermediaries on the benefits of immunity regimes for internet publishers:

“The United States has seen an explosion of entrepreneurial activity from Internet publishers of reputational information—a process fostered by 47 U.S.C. § 230, which Congress enacted in 1996 as part of the Communications Decency Act. Content originators remain liable for their content, but 230 provides Internet publishers with a powerful immunization for content originated by third parties. With 230’s protection, Internet publishers are developing innovative ways to supply consumers with helpful reputational information, freed from concerns that innovation will increase their liability for user content…”

CDA 230, along with the First Amendment, would protect Twitter (and likely most US Twitter customers) should the footballer attempt to enforce a British judgment here in the US, assuming Twitter is not subject to jurisdiction of the UK courts.

That’s good news, but the failure of the UK to adequately protect intermediary platforms under law raises deep concerns.

It Weakens Courts to be King Canute

It is now painfully clear that the judicial ruling is not stopping the facts about this matter from being spoken and that there is a strong public interest in this gossipy news about very public celebrities. As the English courts themselves recently observed in a similar case:

“The Court should guard against slipping into playing the role of King Canute. Even though an order may be desirable for the protection of privacy, and may be made in accordance with the principles currently being applied by the courts, there may come a point where it would simply serve no useful purpose and would merely be characterised, in the traditional terminology, as a brutum fulmen. It is inappropriate for the Court to make vain gestures.”

Continued insistence on this injunction, and continued efforts to impose liability, run the risk of creating an atmosphere where British court rulings have reduced authority because they are viewed as unrealistic and out of touch with modern technology.

British citizens deserve better and it may fall to the British parliament to change the privacy law in order to fix this problem.

Once Again Twitter’s Policy of Notifying Users is Key

In January, Twitter rightfully received the world’s praise for insisting on notifying its users when the US government demanded information about several Twitter users. Now Twitter’s policy of notifying users may be triggered again, in the event that they receive appropriate legal process requiring them to identify users who republished the information. EFF has called on other service providers to make the same promise to notify users that Twitter has made, so that if a “super injunction” hits any other service providers, users can take steps to protect themselves.

Jillian York is the director of international freedom of expression, and Cindy Cohn is legal director, at the Electronic Frontier Foundation

7 responses to “Twitter, free speech, injunctions and the Streisand effect”

  1. […] Amerikanske nettjenester som Twitter, Facebook eller bloggeplattformer som WordPress er beskyttet av en lov som tilsier at de ikke kan stilles til ansvar for hva brukerne deres skriver der. […]

  2. Denny says:

    “It is now painfully clear that … there is a strong public interest in this gossipy news about very public celebrities.”

    I’m very wary of your phrasing here. The public may be interested in violating somebody’s privacy, but that does not mean it is in the public interest to do so.

  3. […] blog post was also published on the Index on Censorship […]

  4. Sceptics 'R Us says:

    Protect the Platform.

    As far as I am aware, nobody is sueing Twitter. They are only being asked for information as to who posted one particular set of posts. Twitter’s Ts&Cs require people to comply with a whole set of laws, local international etc. If their users flout it, and paerticularly from what was being said at e-G*, it would seem reasonable to expect that their users are on their own in respect of what they said. Which is how it should be.

    King Canute etc.

    The Courts here have made a decision under UK laws, based on European wide legislation, which was designed in large part by the UK to try to prevent the sort of terrible behaviours evidenced by politicians and the ordinary people that they could influence and mislead without restraint. It also provides a framework for a decent civilised society.

    The decision was based on all the evidence presented to the Court. From much of the daft comment made subsequently, this evidence is not necessarily apparantly of any interest to most of the public, even though it can be found and the reasons for the interim decision made read through properly. In this, the public were also fed a complete load of tosh by our populist tabloids and some self serving politicians. These people do have form, you know. Or haven’t you noticed?

    Anyway, are you saying that any complete oik with a Twitter account should be able to give our Courts of Justice two fingers if they don’t like their decisions? FFS, that’s like opening the gates to the barbarians. I bet American courts don’t put up with that.

    So, do you draw a line anywhere? Of course you do. Where is it? And, in preserving the sanctity of ‘free speech’, just who are you prepared to let get hurt before it is crossed?

    Twitter notifying users.

    Good. Wish more were like them

  5. […] blog post was also published on the Index on Censorship […]

  6. Lee says:

    They have a much healthier attitude to freedom of speech in the US; the very idea seems to be embedded into their culture at a very deep level. I fear that many members of the European elites have difficulty even understanding the basic premise.