Index relies entirely on the support of donors and readers to do its work.
Help us keep amplifying censored voices today.
[vc_row][vc_column][vc_single_image image=”115172″ img_size=”full”][vc_column_text]Books have long been objects of contention, criticised for spreading ideas which go against the status quo. They are removed from libraries and bookshops, burned, banned and vandalised while writers are attacked, threatened, imprisoned. These actions are nothing new, yet the importance of preserving our freedom to read is more important now than ever.
Freedom to read is at the centre of Banned Books Week, an initiative which has sought to challenge censorship on both sides of the Atlantic, bringing together literary communities – librarians, booksellers, publishers, journalists, teachers, and readers – in shared support of the freedom to seek and to express ideas, even those some consider unorthodox or unpopular.
The initiative was launched in the USA in 1982 in response to a surge in the number of challenges to books in schools. Since then, it has sought to highlight the value of free and open access to information. Each year sees an exciting strand of events, readings list, games and activities designed to get people thinking about books that have been banned throughout history, and are still causing offense today.
As the 2020 Banned Books Week comes to a close, we have a chance to reflect on the impact the initiative has had over the past 38 years, and consider the work we still need to do to ensure everyone is free to read.
Censoring literature is nothing new. It has a long and dark history and has been exercised by governments, political parties and religious groups for centuries. Book burning, which has been recorded as early as the 7th century BCE, and proliferated under the Nazi party in Germany in 1933, is emblematic of a harsh and oppressive regime which is seeking to censor or silence some aspect of prevailing culture.
Today’s methods of censorship remain prevalent yet differ in style. Political leaders use legal methods to silence or prohibit writing which paints themselves and their parties in an unpleasant light – techniques not so different to the vexatious lawsuits used to silence journalists. Academic textbooks are rewritten to paint recent historical events in a very different light, and a favourite illustrated bear has long been banned to protect the ego of other fragile leaders.
As well as these more blatant signs of government censorship, literature is still challenged today. Some of the most canonical works of the 20th century have famously been challenged – including The Handmaid’s Tale, Animal Farm and Lady Chatterley’s Lover, which this year sees the 60th anniversary of its uncensored publication in the UK. But it is children’s books that cause a particular stir, such as And Tango Makes Three by Justin Richardson and Peter Parnell which tells the true story of two male penguins who create a family together and was subsequently banned in US schools and libraries for depicting same-sex marriage and adoption.
While this year’s Banned Books Week took a different shape from previous years, we had the pleasure of hearing a number of writers speak about their experiences of being silenced, censored or simply refused a platform. In the wake of George Floyd’s murder and the resultant global Black Lives Matter protests, it has been clearer than ever before that the voices of some are prioritised to the exclusion of others.
In an online session on 29 September, Urvashi Butalia spoke to poet Rachel Long, and authors Elif Shafak and Jacqueline Woodson about what ‘freedom’ means in the culture of traditional publishing, and how writers today can change the future of literature. During the event, Shafak defended freedom of speech and spoke about her experience of seeing her works of fiction brought into the courtroom – “it was very surreal to me. Art needs freedom, even though it may be harmful in the eyes of authorities.”
Shafak’s comments harked back to those made by Nobel laureate Toni Morrison during the launch of the Free Speech Leadership Council, an advocacy arm of the National Coalition Against Censorship. At the event, Morrison spoke of her novel Song of Solomon being banned at a prison after the warden expressed fear that it might stir the incarcerated to riot. An acoustical lapse led Morrison to speculate as to whether the real fear was of the inmates incitement to “riot” or “write” – asking, which would ultimately be the most dangerous?
While authorities and governments fear literary works that are seen to challenge them, we are reminded this Banned Books Week of the importance of free artistic expression and of literature’s power to challenge even the most powerful, oppressive forces. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][three_column_post title=”You might also like to read” category_id=”581″][/vc_column][/vc_row]
[vc_row][vc_column][vc_media_grid element_width=”6″ grid_id=”vc_gid:1538411159612-931d3bf3-13de-1″ include=”103047,103044,103043,103042″][vc_column_text]Marking the 50th year anniversary of the end of UK theatre censorship ushered in by the Theatres Act of 1968, Index on Censorship hosted The Lord Chamberlain Regrets – Theatre and Censorship workshop. The workshop was targeted at young people aged 18 to 30. This event was a venue partnership with the British Library and was funded by the Noel Coward Foundation.
“Free speech is just as much about having the right to not speak as it is about speaking. What is important is that what you do say is your own choice and not something imposed on you by politicians, society, your family, your friends,” said deputy editor of Index on Censorship magazine Jemimah Steinfeld, who facilitated the workshop, when introducing the event.
The educational and interactive workshop included an overview by Zoë Wilcox, curator, contemporary performance and creative archives of the British Library, on the history of theatre censorship in the UK.
Wilcox explained how the Lord Chamberlain’s office worked, which was responsible for approving — and censoring — scripts of plays that were to be shown publicly. In addition to plays that did not reflect supposed good societal standards, plays were vetted for content that would not positive about the royal family. Sir Robert Walpole introduced this measure of censorship in 1737 to protect him and his administration from political satire.
For 230 years, Wilcox explained, the process of theatre censorship would begin when a playwright sent their script to the Lord Chamberlain where his office would read and demand changes or omit lines found inappropriate to be publicly performed.
Two professional Globe actors, Jennifer Leong and Matthew Romain, also performed scenes from some of Coward’s most provocative plays and attendees were asked to pinpoint what exactly would have wrangled the censors when they were created in the 1920s and 30s.
Leong and Romain performed from The Vortex, a 1924 play written by Noel Coward that explored provocative themes around adultery, drugs and homosexuality, and which resulted in lines being censored by the Lord Chamberlain. The actors then read selections from the letters about the play from members of the public demanding censorship and the Lord Chamberlain ordering changes to the script.
Design for Living, a Coward play written in 1932, also had lines struck by the Lord Chamberlain. After Leong and Romain performed a scene, Steinfeld distributed copies of another scene from the play and asked participants to censor it as if they were the Lord Chamberlain. They then read out their revised scripts.
The Vortex and Design for Living are just a couple of the censored plays contained within the Lord Chamberlain’s archives, which is the British Library’s largest manuscript collection.
Steinfeld said censorship can come from many different avenues – society, politicians, your family and friends – it’s not always obvious and the workshop ended looking at today’s context. Speaking after the event, she said:
“The workshop was incredibly rewarding – many in the room had no idea how censorship in UK theatres worked in terms of the Lord Chamberlain and how this censorship only ended relatively recently. We finished with examples of how censorship still exists in various, albeit more subtle ways in UK theatres. People left wanting to know more and realising that censorship is something that can and does affect them – it’s not something that just concerns those from other times or places.” [/vc_column_text][vc_basic_grid post_type=”post” max_items=”4″ element_width=”6″ grid_id=”vc_gid:1538411129146-c16f9349-0148-1″ taxonomies=”8957″][/vc_column][/vc_row]